django-productline Feature Documentation

django-productline should be used as a base feature.

It provides the basis to create feature-oriented django product lines:

  • it defines the product generation process
  • it provides hooks for other features to refine to add/adapt the functionality


This section documents all the subfeatures django productline provides.


Multilanguage is a feature which enables django’s enhanced language support. For more information read the django docs:

django-productline multilanguage

urlpatterns are constructed by refining django_productline.urls.get_urls.

Here, get_urls and get_multilang_urls is called to get the (composed) urlpatterns.

The i18n_patterns must be defined in the root_urlconf, therefore this refinement is necessary. This function is later called in the get_urls() of django-productline.

To make your projects urls multilanguage, you need to modify your url refinements:

def refine_get_multilang_urls(original):

    def get_multilang_urls():
        from django.conf.urls import url
        urlpatterns = [
            url(r'foo/$', views.FooView.as_view(), name='foo'),
            url(r'bar/$', views.BarView.as_view(), name='bar')
        return original() + urlpatterns

    return get_multilang_urls

If your projects has e.g. ‘en’ as default language and you don’t want it to appear in the url, then set PREFIX_DEFAULT_LANGUAGE to False.

When refining get_urls using includes like this (in case you use standard django apps for example):

urlpatterns = original() + url(r'^', include('app.urls'))

and receive errors, you might want to access the url_patterns attribute of the include directly as i18n_patterns() expects a list of url() instances and include returns a Resolver instance.

Like this:

def refine_get_multilang_urls(original):

    def get_multilang_urls():
        from django.conf.urls import url, include
        # we need the url_patterns attr as this returns a list of url() instances
        urlpatterns = original() + url(r'^', include('app.urls')).url_patterns
        return urlpatterns

    return get_multilang_urls

Multilanguage Admin

This feature enables an optional multi-language admin.

Therefore, it refines the base implementation of the get_admin_urls function in djpladmin.

Obviously, djpladmin needs to be enabled, too and added before this feature.

It simply wraps the original implementation, which simply returns the include of the admin urls, into the i18n_patterns-function.

Refinements by example

This section shows some use cases and patterns to develop features for a django product line.

Refining the django settings

Many features require adaptations to the settings module used by django. django-productline always uses django_productline.settings as the django settings module. Features can apply refinements to it, to add/adapt settings to support the features functionality. Common cases are the refinement of INSTALLED_APPS to register one or more additional django apps and the refinement of MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES to add django middlewares.

As a simple example, we are going to create a feature called https_only, that is implemented by integrating and configuring django-secure.

First, we need to create the python package https_only by creating a folder with that name that contains an empty As the feature needs to refine django_productline.settings, we also create a settings module within the package:


Let’s use the following settings refinement:


#add djangosecure to the end of the INSTALLED_APPS list
def refine_INSTALLED_APPS(original):
    return original + ['djangosecure']

#add SecurityMiddleware to the end of the MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES list
def refine_MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES(original):
    return original + ['djangosecure.middleware.SecurityMiddleware']

#introduce some new settings into django_productline.settings
introduce_SECURE_SSL_REDIRECT = True

This adds djangosecure to the list of installed apps and adds the middleware it depends on. Also, it introduces some security related settings.


Before using this in production, please consult the django-secure documentation.

Now, we need to make sure the settings refinement is applied, when feature https_only is bound:

To use https_only as a feature, we need to add a module called feature to it. Let’s create with the following content:


def select(composer):
    '''bind feature https_only'''
    #import settings refinement (https_only.settings)
    from . import settings
    #import project settings
    import django_productline.settings
    #apply the refinement to the project settings
    composer.compose(settings, django_productline.settings)

This applies our settings refinement, when the feature is bound. We can now add the functionality to products by selecting the https_only feature.

Since this feature refines INSTALLED_APPS and MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES, the composition order needs to be chosen carefully as the web application’s behaviour is dependent on the order of their entries.

Registering urlpatterns

django_productline.urls exports the function get_urls. It is called through django_productline.root_urlconf which is registered as django`s ROOT_URLCONF.

To introduce new urlpatterns, features may refine get_urls. The convention is to specify the refinement in a module called urls within the feature module.


from . import urls #import the refinement definition
import featuredjango.urls #import the base module
#apply the refinement to the base module
featuremonkey.compose(urls, featuredjango.urls)

#in myfeature.urls
def refine_get_urls(original):
    def get_urls():
        introduce myfeature`s views
        from django.urls import patterns
        return original() + patterns('',
            (r'^foo/$', ''),
            (r'^bar/(\d{4})/$', ''),

    return get_urls

Django Model composition

Django already provides an excellent database modularisation mechanism using apps. An app may contain multiple models, i.e. ORM-managed database tables. However, there is no easy way to introduce fields into existing models.

featuremonkey introductions will not work because of the custom metaclass used by django models, that takes care of additional book-keeping during construction of the model class. As introductions are applied after the class has been constructed, the book-keeping code is not executed in this case.

Fortunately, django provides a mechanism that takes care of the book-keeping even for attributes that are added after the class is constructed: model fields and managers provide a contribute_to_class method.

To make use of that, django_productline extends the composer to also support another operation called contribute. It can be used just like introduce except that it does not support callable introductions. Under the hood, it calls contribute_to_class instead of setattr which enables the introduction of fields to models.

Field Introduction Example

Let’s look at an example. Suppose you are working on a todo list application. Then, some clients want an additional description field for their todo items, but others don’t. So, you decide to create a feature to add that field conditionally.

Suppose the todo item model lives in todo.models and looks like this:

# todo/
from django.db import models

class TodoItem(models.Model):

Now, let’s create a feature called todo_description:


Let’s write a refinement for the todo.models module and place it in

#refines todo/
from django.db import models

class child_TodoItem(object):
    contribute_description = models.TextField

Please note, that we are using contribute instead of introduce to let django do its model magic.

Next, let’s apply the refinement in the feature binding function:


def select(composer):

That was it. The description field can now be added by selecting feature todo_description. Obviously, since there is a database involved, the schema needs to be created or modified if it exists already.

If the database table for todo items does not exist already, the field is automatically created in the database upon syncdb

If the table exists already, because the product has been run before selecting feature todo_description, we can use south to do a schemamigration:

$ ape manage schemamigration todo --auto
$ ape manage migrate todo

To compose models, we need to use compose_later as importing django.db.models starts up all the django initialization machinery as a side effect. At this point, this could result in references to partially composed objects and hard to debug problems.

To prevent you from importing these parts of django by accident, django_productline uses import guards for specific modules during composition. After all features are bound, those guards are dropped again and importing the modules is possible again.

The guarded packages/modules currently are:

  • django.conf
  • django.db

Adding WSGI Middleware

If you are using special WSGI-Middleware with your django project and would like to continue to do so using django-productline, you can directly refine django.core.wsgi to achieve that. So if your feature is called mywsgifeature, you can do it as presented in the following example:

First, create a module called wsgi in mywsgifeature containing and define a refinement for get_wsgi_application:


def refine_get_wsgi_application(original):
    def get_wsgi_application():
        application = original()
        from dozer import Dozer
        return Dozer(application)
    return get_wsgi_application

This refinement will add the Dozer WSGI middleware that can be used to track down memory leaks.

To use this for all products that contain mywsgifeature, we need to apply the refinement in


def select(composer):
    from . import wsgi #import our refinement
    import django.core.wsgi #import base module
    #apply refinement
    composer.compose(wsgi, django.core.wsgi)

    #apply other necessary refinements of mywsgifeature


If multiple features of your product line add WSGI middlewares to your application, the order in which the middlewares are applied is defined by the composition order of the selected features.

Available tasks

(All of these commands are issued by entering ape + commandname )

Product-Lifecycle tasks

install_container <containername>
install a container into the development environment.
selects and activates the features that are listed in the product equation if run. This needs to be called on every first startup of the environment.
deploy the selected application to the server

From this point forward you can use the ape manage commands which are similar to the python commands from pythons virtualenv.

Container selection tasks

cd <target directory>
change into target directory
This changes the focus on the previously installed container. The first argument is the name of the container itself, the second one is the context in which the container is setup. In detail this changes some things in the product equation, e.g. to provide different setups for productive or development setups. Usually these products are website_dev respectively website_prod. They can be looked up by taking the directory names from /dev
zap <containername>:<product>
alias for “teleport”. Use this the following way: ape zap <containername>:<product> like: ape zap slimcontent:sample_dev or similar
switch <target>
switch the context to the specified target.
teleport <dir target>
change the directory and switch to the target inside this directory

Further available ape commands

starts up the development server. This is equal to ape manage runserver. Runserver optionally accepts an IP- Adress as an argument to run the dev server on a custom IP- Adress. If the server is started under<PORT> it exposes <PORT> to the LAN under <IP- Adress of devmachine>:<PORT>. This is useful for sharing development states amongst diferrent machines e.g. for mobile development similar tasks.
prints details about available tasks
prints information about the development environment
manage <...args>
calls django-specific management tasks. This is equal to django’s default python - command.

prepares a product for deployment. This is a combo command that runs the following three comands prefixed with prepare_ in order of appearance here. Under the hood this runs tasks such as:

  • setting up the database and database schema
  • generating the webserver configuration
  • basically everything that’s necessary for the server to run your app

must be executed every time after feature selection and/or changes of the product context

Creates the database, prepares it for sync. By default this does nothing but can be refined by certain features to accomplish specific database creation tasks
This is a combo command that runs syncdb and applies database migrations afterwards
Prepares the filesystem for deployment. If you use the base implementation this creates the data dir.
Task decorator that checks if the product environment of django-productline is activated which is necessary for the environment to run. Specifically it checks whether: - context is bound - features have been composed
Calls fundamental Django management tasks
the base implementation delegates to the dev task.Features may refine this to add support for mod_wsgi,uwsgi,gunicorn,...

Required context data

django_productline requires the following keys in the product context:

database configuration in the form required by django.conf.settings.DATABASES.
site_id to be used by django. See django.conf.settings.SITE_ID

absolute path to directory where application data will be stored. This directory needs to be writable by the application user. Data is placed in the following subfolders:

see django.conf.settings.SECRET_KEY